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Distinctive character (or “distinctiveness”) is one of the essential conditions for the validity of a trademark, as set forth in Article L.711-2-2° of the Intellectual Property Code.

Distribution law

Distribution law is constantly evolving, driven by the new commercial techniques that are developing on digital networks.


Exhaustion of rights

The rule of exhaustion of rights is contained in Article 15 of Directive (EU) No. 2015/2436 on trademarks as well as in Article 4, § 2, of Directive (EU) No. 2001/29 on copyright, which provides that:

“The right of distribution in the Community in respect of the original or copies of a work shall not be exhausted until the first sale or other transfer of ownership in the Community of that subject matter by the right holder or with his consent.”


The European Union Office for Intellectual Property (EUIPO), formerly known as the Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (OHIM), is the central institution of the European Union responsible for the management of the European Union’s trademarks and designs, which are strategic assets in business life .


Foreclosure by tolerance

In matters of trademark law, the foreclosure by tolerance is an end of non-receipt provided by the law to :

Franchising and Commission-Affiliation

Franchising and commission-affiliation are two distinct legal systems that allow a company to develop their business in a network.


The report is a legal act by which a judicial officer carries out a certain number of observations on a given place (the need to obtain a prior order from a judge may be compulsory in particular within the framework of the report 145).

Finding 145

In the case of infringement of intellectual property rights, for example in the field of trademarks, designs or copyrights, the right holders (individual or company) can use the seizure of infringement in order to be authorized to appoint a bailiff who will act on the order of a judge and will go on the premises of the infringing competitor in order to gather information about the infringement.

Family name

Etymologically, patronymic comes from the Latin pater, the father. The patronymic is commonly used to designate a person’s family name.




Influencers (Bad Buzz)

The word ” influencer ” entered the French dictionary in 2017. The influencer is the one who ” influences the opinion, the consumption by his audience on social networks ” (dictionary Le Robert).


The National Institute of Intellectual Property (INPI), located in Courbevoie, is a financially autonomous public institution under the supervision of the Ministry of Industrial Property.

Intellectual Property Lawyer and Intellectual Property Counsel

What is the difference between an IP lawyer and an IP attorney?

Image rights

The right to the image is not expressly provided for by French law. It is a law resulting from the jurisprudence on the basis of two texts:

Infringement proceedings

The legal action for infringement is the one specifically open to the holders of intellectual property rights in case of infringement of the latter.

Industrial property

Industrial property is one of the two branches of intellectual property.

Intellectual Property

Intellectual property is a specific branch of law that groups together all the rules applicable to “intellectual property”, to intangible property resulting from a creative effort.



The logo is a particular graphic / visual.

Lapse of trademark

Trademark revocation is provided for in articles L.714-5 and L.714-6 of the Intellectual Property Code.

Literary and artistic property

Literary and artistic property is one of the two branches of intellectual property.