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Cloud Act
The Cloud Act, or Clarifying Lawful Overseas Use of Data Act, is a U.S. federal law passed on March 23, 2018, allowing U.S. authorities to conduct investigations by ordering electronic communication service providers and cloud service providers to collect, retain, and disclose the content of email messages and any other personal data or metadata related to a customer or subscriber in their possession.
Cloud computing
Cloud computing refers to a method of processing data over the Internet in the form of services provided by a service provider.

Cobranding and Collaboration

A trademark is a sign with a distinctive character and constitutes a major intellectual property asset for a company.

Codes of conduct
Codes of conduct are voluntary accountability tools that set out specific rules for the protection of personal data for certain categories of data controllers and processors.
Consent is one of the six legal bases for processing personal data in accordance with the GDPR.


Infringement is defined as the reproduction, imitation or use of an intellectual property asset without the consent of the rights holder (and therefore in violation of a private right).

A cookie is a text file that is deposited by the provider of a website on the computer, telephone or other terminal of the user of a site or application, allowing the collection of information relating to the latter and his interaction with the site or application, and in particular personal data.
Cybersquatting refers to the registration as a domain name of a distinctive sign of a personality or an organization, such as a company name or a trademark, by a third party wishing to take material or moral advantage of its present or future notoriety.
Company name

The company name is the name given to a company that identifies it as a legal entity and distinguishes it from competing companies.


In France, copyright is an intellectual property right (a branch of literary and artistic property) which arises from the sole fact of the creation of a work of the mind, subject to its originality, and which belongs to its author.

Copyright license

In the field of literary and artistic property, a copyright license agreement is an agreement by which the owner of the copyright The copyright owner (the licensor) authorizes the exploitation of all or part of his economic rights on his intellectual work to a third party (the licensee), most often in exchange for a royalty, often proportional to the result (turnover, profit) of the exploitation.

Consumer mediator

The consumer mediator is the natural or legal person who carries out a conventional mediation mission with the aim of trying to reach an agreement to resolve amicably a dispute between a consumer and a professional

Commercial prospecting

The notion of commercial prospecting refers to the sending of any message intended to promote, directly or indirectly, goods, services or the image of a person selling goods or providing services.


Data Protection Officer

The Data Protection Officer is at the heart of the compliance framework enshrined in the GDPR and facilitates organizations’ compliance with its provisions.


Denigration constitutes a limit to the freedom of expression which is a fundamental freedom, and implies in itself a right to criticism which must be justified by a desire to inform.


The DNS, or Domain Name System, is an addressing system for the Internet that allows a domain name to be associated with an IP address, so that a message can reach its recipient or an Internet user can find a particular website.
Designs and models

The design is defined by the 1st paragraph of article L.511-1 of the Intellectual Property Code as: ” the appearance of a product, or part of a product, characterized in particular by its lines, contours, colors, shape, texture or materials. These characteristics can be those of the product itself or of its ornamentation.


In France, defamation is governed by the law of July 29, 1881 on the freedom of the press.

Data Protection Act

The law n°78-17 of January 6, 1978 relating to data processing, files and freedoms, known as the “data processing and freedoms law” is the reference text regulating the protection of personal data in France.

Data minimization

The minimization principle is one of the six core principles of the GDPR.

Data Protection Impact Assessment – DPIA

The personal data protection impact assessment is the evaluation of the risks for the rights and freedoms of individuals that may be generated by a personal data processing operation.

Data subject

A data subject within the meaning of the GDPR is any identified or identifiable natural person whose personal data are processed.

Data protection by default and by design

Privacy by design and by default is part of the accountability principle to which the data controller is subject.

Data controller

The data controller is the natural or legal person who, alone or jointly with others, determines the purposes and means of processing personal data.

Data processing

Processing of personal data is any operation or set of operations, whether or not by automatic means, which is performed on personal data or sets of personal data.

Data transfer

The notion of data transfer refers more specifically to the transfer of personal data outside the European Union.

Data breach

A personal data breach is a breach of security that results in the accidental or unlawful destruction, loss, alteration, unauthorized disclosure of, or access to, personal data that is transmitted, stored or otherwise processed.