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The metaverse, a contraction of the term meta-universe, is a network of interconnected, persistent and shared virtual worlds.



An NFT, or non-fungible token, is a data file representing a digital object stored on a blockchain. It is a digital certificate dedicated to an object or a digital work and which validates its authenticity.

National Commission for Information Technology and Civil Liberties

Created by the Data Protection Act, the CNIL is an independent administrative authority. It is the French supervisory authority under the GDRP.



Opposition is an act by which a natural or legal person asks the body in charge of issuing the title concerned (for example, the INPI for a French trademark application and the EUIPO for a European Union trademark application) to reject the application for registration on the grounds that it infringes his or her prior rights.


Parking page
As a matter of principle, websites that exclusively host sponsored links are considered to be parking pages.

Patronymic name

Etymologically, patronymic comes from the Latin pater, the father. The patronymic name is commonly used to designate a person’s family name.

Phishing is a form of fraud on the Internet that aims to encourage people to communicate personal data, often banking data, for the purpose of identity theft and/or theft.
Profiling is defined under the GDPR as a form of automated processing of personal data for the purpose of evaluating certain personal aspects relating to the data subject, in particular for the purpose of analyzing or predicting matters relating to that natural person’s work performance, economic situation, health, personal preferences, interests, reliability, behavior, location or movements.
Pseudonymization is a technical security measure that reduces the correlation of a set of personal data with the original identity of a data subject, which is part of data protection by design and data protection by default, and can be included among the appropriate safeguards.


Confidentiality is the obligation not to communicate information about individuals to third parties who do not have the right to know it.

Priority period

The right of priority is based on Article 4 of the Paris Union Convention of March 20, 1883, which brings together several member states and to which France is a party.

Personal data

Personal data is any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person, also known as a data subject.

Public data

A public data is an information produced or received by the State, the local authorities as well as by the other persons of public right or the persons of private right charged of a mission of public service.


The purpose of processing personal data is the specific reason why the data is processed by the controller or processor.

Preliminary question

European Union (EU) law now influences the legislation of the member states in increasingly diverse areas, including economic and monetary law, banking law, digital law and related rights.

Prior art search

A trademark is a distinctive sign which, in order to benefit from protection under trademark law, must be available.


Refusal of registration or notification of irregularity

When a registration of an intellectual property right has been made, it does not necessarily mean that the subject matter of the registration will be protected since the Intellectual Property Office may decide to refuse the registration or issue a notice of irregularity.

Register of processing activities
The register of personal data processing activities contributes to documenting the compliance of data controllers and processors, particularly with regard to their accountability.